Metsovo 1900
Gradually, Metsovo merchants started to replace their local clothing with “Frankish” outfits. Those who stayed in Metsovo still wore the traditional dress with some modifications. After the liberation of Metsovo in 1912, most abandoned the fez and tsarouhi shoes and around that time, women’s clothes were increasingly made using western fabrics based on new patterns.
Metsovo 1900
Schools operated in Metsovo from the early 18th century. The first secondary school in Metsovo was officially founded in 1759 when the Ottomans authorised the restoration of the church of Aghia Paraskevi—its cells would serve as the school’s classrooms until 1817. This first school employed a teacher and two assistant teachers and was financed by inhabitants of Metsovo living abroad and funds from the Monastery of Aghios Nikolaos.The inhabitants of Metsovo who studied in European universities formed a group of intellectuals, teachers and priests who played an active role in Greece’s intellectual life.
Metsovo 1900
Gradually, Metsovo merchants started to replace their local clothing with “Frankish” outfits. Those who stayed in Metsovo still wore the traditional dress with some modifications. After the liberation of Metsovo in 1912, most abandoned the fez and tsarouhi shoes and around that time, women’s clothes were increasingly made using western fabrics based on new patterns.
Metsovo 1900
Motivated by the growth in commerce, many men left Metsovo to settle permanently in cities in Europe, the Ottoman Empire or Russia. However, for most of them, Metsovo remained the centre of their financial activities and their family life. Much of their annual income was pumped back into the local economy and hundreds of inhabitants of Metsovo made donations of varying sizes towards public works. Some of them, such as Georgios Averoff, Michael Tossizza and Nikolaos Stournaras, became well-known benefactors at a national level.
Metsovo 1900
Motivated by the growth in commerce, many men left Metsovo to settle permanently in cities in Europe, the Ottoman Empire or Russia. However, for most of them, Metsovo remained the centre of their financial activities and their family life. Much of their annual income was pumped back into the local economy and hundreds of inhabitants of Metsovo made donations of varying sizes towards public works. Some of them, such as Georgios Averoff, Michael Tossizza and Nikolaos Stournaras, became well-known benefactors at a national level.
Metsovo 1900
During the years of Ottoman rule in the Balkans, religion was an important part of people’s identity and everyday life. Social events surrounding birth, marriage and death as well as eating habits, mentalities and behaviours were all inextricably linked to religion and explain why churches in Metsovo played such a central role.The Ottoman state allowed Christians and Jews to restore their churches and synagogues but forbade them from building new ones. Any restoration required a permit from the Ottoman authorities, issued both from the local civil judge (kadi) and from the central government in Istanbul.In practice however, the Ottoman state proved to be quite pragmatic and flexible and often allowed the construction of new churches and synagogues, despite the official ban.
Metsovo 1900
During the years of Ottoman rule in the Balkans, religion was an important part of people’s identity and everyday life. Social events surrounding birth, marriage and death as well as eating habits, mentalities and behaviours were all inextricably linked to religion and explain why churches in Metsovo played such a central role.The Ottoman state allowed Christians and Jews to restore their churches and synagogues but forbade them from building new ones. Any restoration required a permit from the Ottoman authorities, issued both from the local civil judge (kadi) and from the central government in Istanbul.In practice however, the Ottoman state proved to be quite pragmatic and flexible and often allowed the construction of new churches and synagogues, despite the official ban.
Metsovo 1900
During the 18th century, many Vlachs abandoned animal husbandry and semi-nomadic life to take up commerce. Initially, they settled permanently in their mountainous villages, but they gradually started to migrate and establish businesses in cities such as Venice, Naples, Trieste, Marseilles, Vienna, Bucharest, Moscow, Odessa, Istanbul and Alexandria.
Metsovo 1900
Until the early 20th century, tradition in Metosovo forbade girls from walking outside unless accompanied by their parents, a brother, a first cousin or an elderly relative. The only exception was when they went to the fountain to collect water or to the river to wash clothes.
Metsovo 1900
Until the early 20th century, tradition in Metosovo forbade girls from walking outside unless accompanied by their parents, a brother, a first cousin or an elderly relative. The only exception was when they went to the fountain to collect water or to the river to wash clothes.
Metsovo 1900
Between 1430 and 1912, Metsovo and the entire area of Northern Greece were under Ottoman rule. Initially, Metsovo fell under the sanjak (administrative region) of Trikala but after the mid-19th century it was governed by the Pasha of Ioannina.Throughout those five centuries, the Vlach-speaking community of mountainous Metsovo participated in the economic life of the vast empire, paying taxes to the central administration and developing commercial relationships with a wide network of cities (including the capital Istanbul) as well as with some cities that lay beyond the borders of the Ottoman state. At the same time, Metsovo constituted an integral part of the Ottoman administrative and military organisation, at times serving as the headquarters for Ottoman officials.The fort of Metsovo, which housed the Ottoman administration and military guard, as well as a mosque, was built between 1864 and 1867.
Metsovo 1900
Until the beginning of the 20th century, there was a seven-member “Committee” consisting of representatives of Metsovo’s villages (mahalades).The Committee represented the Metsovites before Ottoman authorities and was responsible for basic services in Metsovo (e.g. water supply, market inspection, public order) and for compiling tax lists.The Committee was dominated by financially powerful groups such as rich livestock farmers and kyratzides (caravan owners) however, after the 19th century, increasing numbers of members came from the bourgeois who had made their fortunes through commerce.
Metsovo 1900
Between 1430 and 1912, Metsovo and the entire area of Northern Greece were under Ottoman rule. Initially, Metsovo fell under the sanjak (administrative region) of Trikala but after the mid-19th century it was governed by the Pasha of Ioannina.Throughout those five centuries, the Vlach-speaking community of mountainous Metsovo participated in the economic life of the vast empire, paying taxes to the central administration and developing commercial relationships with a wide network of cities (including the capital Istanbul) as well as with some cities that lay beyond the borders of the Ottoman state. At the same time, Metsovo constituted an integral part of the Ottoman administrative and military organisation, at times serving as the headquarters for Ottoman officials.The fort of Metsovo, which housed the Ottoman administration and military guard, as well as a mosque, was built between 1864 and 1867.
Metsovo 1900
Of the various races that inhabit the Balkan peninsula the Vlachs are in many ways one of the least known. […] At the present day they are to be found widely scattered over the more mountainous and remote parts of the peninsula from Acarnania in the south to as far north as the mountains of Bulgaria and Serbia. […] The position of the Vlach villages high up in the hills of Macedonia, in districts rarely visited, the departure of the Vlachs from the plains in early spring before the time when travelling is most common, their use of a second language in all intercourse with the outer world and lastly the double meaning of the name Vlach in Modern Greek have all helped to restrict and confuse outside knowledge of their life and conditions.“The nomads of the Balkans: an account of life and customs among the Vlachs of Northern Epirus”, Alan J. B. Wace – Maurice S. Thompson, Methuen, London, 1914