Salt of the Earth
A salt worker holds a huge slab of salt she pulled out of Lake Katwe in Western Uganda. The lake sits in an extinct volcano and the salt forms at the bottom of the lake where it must be broken in to manageable sized pieces and brought to the surface. Full of pollutants and blistering heat makes working in the lake very hard.
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
The view from the outskirts of the town of Khunzakh which is located on a rocky plateau.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
Muslim men pray in their thousands on the first Friday of Ramadan inside The Grand Mosque in Makhachkala. It is the main mosque of the Republic of Dagestan and is supposed to have been designed after the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul. The mosque was completed and consecrated in 1998 and can accommodate 17,000 worshippers.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
Muslim men from the village of Theletl take Friday prayer in the local village Mosque.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
After a party, young Dagestani men visit a hot springs in the middle of no-where which has a flammable fountain of water.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
Dagestan men and women dance on the dance floor during a wedding in an expensive wedding hall in Makhachkala. During weddings in Dagestan men and women sit and eat separately and only mix on the dance floor.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
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28th February 2010 - Pathum Thani, Thailand - The annual celebration of Mucha Bucha Day, a Buddhist festival, where over 40,000 monks and lay people meditated and lit candles. Photo credit: Luke Duggleby
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
Street lamps illuminate the only road leading through the village of Kubachi. The village inhabited by people of the Dargin ethnic group is famous throughout the whole of Russia for its skilled silver craftsmen who are commissioned from across Russia and abroad.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
Factory workers roll sheets of silver inside the government run Kubachi Silver Factory. He has worked in the factory since 1969. Created in the Soviet times the factory once employed 800 people. Now only 30 remain.The village inhabited by people of the Dargin ethnic group is famous throughout the whole of Russia for its skilled silver craftsmen who are commissioned from across Russia and abroad.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
The End of Bangladesh's Enclaves
Inside an enclave, or chitmahal, a man prepares jute removing the thread and keeping the sticks. For the many inhabitants of the enclaves, jute is where most of their income comes from and also what they use to build their houses. Jute is also known as the Golden Thread of Bangladesh is one of the largest industries in the country.On July 31st 2015 the enclaves that formed one of the world's most complicated borders were officially absorbed in to the countries that surrounded them in a land-mark land swap between India and Bangladesh. The people that lived in them will finally receive citizenship.Enclaves are small pockets of sovereign land completely surrounded by another sovereign nation. Approximately 160 enclaves, known as chitmahals, exist on either side of the India-Bangladesh border. For 68 years the 50,000 plus inhabitants of these enclaves have lived a difficult existence, stranded from their home nation and ignored by the country that surrounds them.In theory even leaving their enclaves is illegally crossing an international border and for decades it has been very difficult for them to receive even the most basic of rights whether education or health. Even the police have no jurisdiction in the enclaves leaving them essentially lawless.
The End of Bangladesh's Enclaves
Muslim men from the Dhoholakhagrabari enclave pray in their mosque. The only solid structures that exist inside the enclaves, that aren't made of jute sticks and bamboo, are mosques. People have not risked building solid structures for housing due to the uncertainty of their situation and lack of roads to bring in the heavy material. With no outside help the locals collected donations and built this unfinished structure to use as their place of pray.On July 31st 2015 the enclaves that formed one of the world's most complicated borders were officially absorbed in to the countries that surrounded them in a land-mark land swap between India and Bangladesh. The people that lived in them will finally receive citizenship.Enclaves are small pockets of sovereign land completely surrounded by another sovereign nation. Approximately 160 enclaves, known as chitmahals, exist on either side of the India-Bangladesh border. For 68 years the 50,000 plus inhabitants of these enclaves have lived a difficult existence, stranded from their home nation and ignored by the country that surrounds them.In theory even leaving their enclaves is illegally crossing an international border and for decades it has been very difficult for them to receive even the most basic of rights whether education or health. Even the police have no jurisdiction in the enclaves leaving them essentially lawless.
Thailand's Murdered and Abducted Activists and Human Rights Defenders
Mr Ari Songkraw, the vice-President of the Pha Tom Num Conservation Association was shot dead in a rubber plantation on 30 December 1999, in Kanchanadit, Surat Thani Province. He was trying to protect the forest from illegal logging.
Village of the Freed
A mother and daughter, recently rescued by the NGO, temperarily sleep in a tent until they have time and money to built a solid house. Following the release of the Global Slavery Index by the Walk Free Foundation Pakistan is ranked 3rd worse in the world behind India and China. The Asian Development Bank estimates some 1.8 million people are slaves in Pakistan yet other estimates reach up to 4 million people, most of which toil year after year in brick kilns or sugar cane plantations. Their stories are the same; they have no-where to turn so they borrow money from a land-owner for a medical emergency or marriage dowry. The landlords pay in return for work, their labour supposed to be taken off the amount borrowed. Yet after years of no salary incredibly their amount owed is often quadrupled, the excuse being the amount they cost to feed! Many are chained, abused, raped and even killed.For years they had no where to run, no one to help but now a small local NGO called the Green Development Rural Organisation (GDRO) works to free bonded-slaves by using the law against their captives. Yet, often freed slaves end up right back where they were or risk being hunted by the landowner and forced to return. So GRDO started building villages so slaves who escape or are freed have somewhere safe to go. It now has two, whose names translate from Urdu as 'Village of the Freed' and 'Village of the Courageous', and is working on a 3rd. The land is bought and allocated to freed slave families where they can built a house and start again. Without such help the vicious cycle would continue.
The End of Bangladesh's Enclaves
Muslim men from the Dhoholakhagrabari enclave pray in their mosque. The only solid structures that exist inside the enclaves, that aren't made of jute sticks and bamboo, are mosques. People have not risked building solid structures for housing due to the uncertainty of their situation and lack of roads to bring in the heavy material. With no outside help the locals collected donations and built this unfinished structure to use as their place of pray.On July 31st 2015 the enclaves that formed one of the world's most complicated borders were officially absorbed in to the countries that surrounded them in a land-mark land swap between India and Bangladesh. The people that lived in them will finally receive citizenship.Enclaves are small pockets of sovereign land completely surrounded by another sovereign nation. Approximately 160 enclaves, known as chitmahals, exist on either side of the India-Bangladesh border. For 68 years the 50,000 plus inhabitants of these enclaves have lived a difficult existence, stranded from their home nation and ignored by the country that surrounds them.In theory even leaving their enclaves is illegally crossing an international border and for decades it has been very difficult for them to receive even the most basic of rights whether education or health. Even the police have no jurisdiction in the enclaves leaving them essentially lawless.
Celebrating Tabaski in Gambia
Gambian Muslims, both young and old, fill the local mosque in Sinchu and every available space outside to pray during the first day of Tabaski. Eid al-Adha, or known as Tabaski in West Africa, is also called the Feast of Sacrifice. Celebrated throughout the Muslim world is the second of the two Eid celebrations. During Tabaski every family will buy a goat which will be sacrificed and the meat distributed between the family and friends.
Dagestan: The Land of Mountains
A remote twisty road winds its way through the green hills as rain approaches.Located in the North Caucasus, bordering the Caspian Sea and a Republic of Russia, Dagestan is home to almost 3 million mostly muslim people. Ethnically very diverse, it is made up of several dozen ethnic groups and is Russia's most heterogeneous republic, where no ethnicity forms a majority.From 2000 until late 2012 Dagestan was subject to a violent Islamic separatist movement that spilled over from neighbouring Chechnya but has now been largely controlled by the Russian Government.Now relatively peaceful Dagestan (which means Land of Mountains) remains one of Russia's untouched treasures receiving few visitors. Due to its relative isolation, this beautiful mountainous region has maintained its traditional cultures that have been lost in many other parts of Russia.
The End of Bangladesh's Enclaves
In Maja Para village in the Dhoholakhagrabari enclave young students and their teacher sit in class of a madrassa. Because enclave children have a difficult time accessing the education system in Bangladesh the locals of this enclave formed an Islamic Foundation funded on donations and built this school to give their children some form of education.On July 31st 2015 the enclaves that formed one of the world's most complicated borders were officially absorbed in to the countries that surrounded them in a land-mark land swap between India and Bangladesh. The people that lived in them will finally receive citizenship.Enclaves are small pockets of sovereign land completely surrounded by another sovereign nation. Approximately 160 enclaves, known as chitmahals, exist on either side of the India-Bangladesh border. For 68 years the 50,000 plus inhabitants of these enclaves have lived a difficult existence, stranded from their home nation and ignored by the country that surrounds them.In theory even leaving their enclaves is illegally crossing an international border and for decades it has been very difficult for them to receive even the most basic of rights whether education or health. Even the police have no jurisdiction in the enclaves leaving them essentially lawless.
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September 2003 - Yunnan, China - A pilgrim from the Tibetan Autonomous Region wears a picture of the Dalai Lama with pride. In the TAR any image of the Dalai Lama is illegal and must be hidden. However in this remote area of the TAR his portrait can be worn with pride and without fear of being caught. Photo credit: Luke Duggleby
The End of Bangladesh's Enclaves
It has been impossible for residents of the enclaves to work in any formal office in the towns either because of their lack of legal status or their lack of basic education. As a result most work in the informal economy such this local saw mill.On July 31st 2015 the enclaves that formed one of the world's most complicated borders were officially absorbed in to the countries that surrounded them in a land-mark land swap between India and Bangladesh. The people that lived in them will finally receive citizenship.Enclaves are small pockets of sovereign land completely surrounded by another sovereign nation. Approximately 160 enclaves, known as chitmahals, exist on either side of the India-Bangladesh border. For 68 years the 50,000 plus inhabitants of these enclaves have lived a difficult existence, stranded from their home nation and ignored by the country that surrounds them.In theory even leaving their enclaves is illegally crossing an international border and for decades it has been very difficult for them to receive even the most basic of rights whether education or health. Even the police have no jurisdiction in the enclaves leaving them essentially lawless.
Fish market at Tanji, Gambia.
On the beach at Tanji is Gambia's largest fish market. Every morning and afternoon African pirogues bring fish back to shore from the Atlantic. The fish are then immediately bought by customers and middle-men creating chaotic scenes involving hundreds of people.
Fish smoking at Tanji, Gambia.
Behind Gambia's largest fish market at Tanji is a collection of fish smoking buildings. For centuries fish have been smoked here and either sold domestically or exported to other parts of North Africa, particularly Nigeria. Caught in the Atlantic, the fish are smoked for days after which they can be kept without refrigeration for months.
Burial site of the Wa
In a remote corner of Southwest China, only a stones throw away from the border with Myanmar lies a region inhabited by the Wa minority and covered by dense jungle. The Wa were traditionally a warrior tribe of head hunters who placed the heads of their victims on spikes throughout their territiory to scare their enemies. Having ceased head hunting several decades ago, their practise changed to worshipping ox skulls which every year is celebrated by the sacrifice of an ox, the skull of which is hung in this sacred burial ground. The result is a steep valley covered with thousands of Ox skulls.
Salt of the Earth
Two brothers shovel salt from Lake Binagadi in to a trailer attached to the back of their old Soviet-era car.
Village of the Freed
Sugar cane plantations are another industry that has large numbers of bonded-slaves. The people seen here have been rescued or escaped from their landlords and now work in a 'safe' environment receiving their daily wage.Following the release of the Global Slavery Index by the Walk Free Foundation Pakistan is ranked 3rd worse in the world behind India and China. The Asian Development Bank estimates some 1.8 million people are slaves in Pakistan yet other estimates reach up to 4 million people, most of which toil year after year in brick kilns or sugar cane plantations. Their stories are the same; they have no-where to turn so they borrow money from a land-owner for a medical emergency or marriage dowry. The landlords pay in return for work, their labour supposed to be taken off the amount borrowed. Yet after years of no salary incredibly their amount owed is often quadrupled, the excuse being the amount they cost to feed! Many are chained, abused, raped and even killed.For years they had no where to run, no one to help but now a small local NGO called the Green Development Rural Organisation (GDRO) works to free bonded-slaves by using the law against their captives. Yet, often freed slaves end up right back where they were or risk being hunted by the landowner and forced to return. So GRDO started building villages so slaves who escape or are freed have somewhere safe to go. It now has two, whose names translate from Urdu as 'Village of the Freed' and 'Village of the Courageous', and is working on a 3rd. The land is bought and allocated to freed slave families where they can built a house and start again. Without such help the vicious cycle would continue.
Isatou Ceesay - The Queen of Waste Plastic
Isatou Ceesay stands at a waste dump in the town of Birkama. Mrs Ceesay founded the Women's Initiative Gambia in 1997. The organisation works with communities across the tiny west African state to address not only the environmental impact of unregulated waste disposal, particularly plastic, but also the empowerment of women in the make dominated society. Over one hundred women are now involved in Isatou's project.
Bangkok's Car Cemetery
Car wrecks sit rotting away in Bangkok's 'car cemetery'.According to a 2014 study by the University of Michiganís Transportation Research Institute Thailand ranks number 2 in the world for road fatalities, narrowly second only to Namibia. The report found a frightening 44 road deaths were recorded per 10,000 population. The high accident rate is often attributed to reckless driving, including driving while intoxicated, and lack of safety precautions such as wearing a helmet on motorbikes. A WHO report indicated that 26 percent of road deaths in Thailand involve alcohol.The sheer number of crashed vehicles is so high that police now hold auctions to sell off the vehicles, either not wanted by their owner or beyond repair, and it has become a good business. But the auctions are a relatively new phenomenon where previously cars would be kept at police stations until the legal case is complete and then deposited at a collection site.On the outskirts of Bangkok in a scruffy suburb is one such depository. Dubbed ëthe car cemeteryí by locals it was where many of Bangkokís damaged wrecks would end up if no-one else wanted to them. But the site has also taken on another reputation; that of being one of the most haunted places in the city, third to be precise according to a local TV station. Thaiís are very superstitious people and most believe in ghosts or spirits. Here it was believed that the spirits of those killed in the crashes remained with the vehicles they died in. Many a passerby or taxi driver have stories of people in and around the compound who then simply vanishing. Locals became so frightened of the place that a group of Thai Buddhist monks from a nearby temple were invited in to perform a ritual exorcism to release the spirits.With most crashed cars now being bought at the auctions the car cemetery doesnít receive new vehicles anymore but many of the old ones remain surrounded by weeds and covered in rust. Grotesque relics and unwanted wre
Salt making in the Warcha salt mine in Pakistan.
Salt making in the Warcha salt mine in Pakistan.
Salt of the Earth
Camels carrying salt bricks walk for two days to deliver the salt. This ancient salt caravan has delivered salt bricks from the Danakil Depression to the trading town of Berhaile for thousands of years where it is taken further by truck.
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6 September 2006 - Yunnan Province, China - n a remote village, this Tibetan man stands in the doorway of a Tibetan Buddhist monastery holding a hand-made rifle. He is the temple keeper and the weapon, amongst other guns and swords, were handed in several decades ago by the local villagers. In the name of renouncing violence in this wild-frontier area and to mark an end to village rivalry, local villagers gave all their weapons to the monastery for safe keeping. Photo credit: Luke Duggleby
Thailand's Murdered and Abducted Activists and Human Rights Defenders
Ms. Montha Chukaew, aged 54, and Ms. Pranee Boonrat, aged 50, were shot and killed while they were on their way to a local market on the 19 November 2012. They were members of the Southern Peasants’ Federation of Thailand (SPFT). The SPFT is a landless peasants’ network formed in 2008 campaigning for the right to agricultural land in the Khlong Sai Pattana community, Chaiburi district, Surat Thani province. The bodies of the women HRDs were mutilated by the gunmen, to intimidate the community further.
The Maniq of Southern Thailand
The Maniq of Southern Thailand
A Village Under Siege - The Story of Klong Sai Pattana
A house in Klong Sai Pattana village stands in a clearing in what once was a palm oil plantation. Whilst the land of the village has been cleared the area is still surrounded by palm oil plantations.
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6 February 2010 - Pathum Thani, Thailand - At a Thai Buddist temple called Wat Phra Dhammakaya a mass ordination of 34,000 monks takes places. Performed at an elaborate ceremony for which the temple is renowned, the men come from all over the country to become monks. Photo credit: Luke Duggleby
Coal in Thailand
The large Mae Moh coal burning power plant releasing smoke from its stacks at dawn. The power plant turns off most of its the smoke in the daytime then starts again at night.Mae Moh was Thailand's first and largest coal-powered plant. It is also located next to Thailand's only source of coal, a vast open surface mine. For years the local villagers have complained that the power-plant is causing all kinds of health issues but these claims are largely ignored by the owner of the plant.
A Village Under Siege - The Story of Klong Sai Pattana
Sukon Dongwun, 54, moves cows in to their pen for the night. The cows are collectively owned by the villagers and people take it in turns to look after them.
The Maniq of Southern Thailand
The Maniq of Southern Thailand
Thailand's Murdered and Abducted Activists and Human Rights Defenders
Mr Singthong Puttachan was shot dead in his shop on 8 September 2011 in Wiang Chai District of Chiang Rai Province. He was a member of a community opposing the construction of a power plant next to their village.
Salt of the Earth
A Peruvian salt maker walks across her salt terraces on the Inca made structure of Salinas de Maras in the Cusco region of Peru.